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View more great items Powered by Frooition Frooition Frooition No-js Template eBay design, eBay store design, eBay shop design, eBay template design, eBay listing design ver:froonojs This listing is currently undergoing maintenance, we apologise for any inconvenience caused. Wearing dark glasses is a common strategy among modern hagglers. If you hear an audio recording of yourself, or watch yourself on video, what you hear and see may not be what you expect, but it does give you real feedback on the way you actually behave and how you may come across to others. These changes include of voices, separate from the differences in emphasis, volume, pitch, inflection, nasality and articulation.

Paralanguage words being spoken, that can convey meanings can also give indications of geographical origins and socioeconomic class. Oh no — never.

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Such emphases, sometimes shown in text by italics, can convey many meanings, including sarcasm, boredom, sexual suggestiveness or anger, or they may simply be a means of drawing attention to particular points or interpretations of word clusters. The volume we use when we speak can indicate boldness, timidity, confidentiality or other states of mind.

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  • We will also change the volume according to the physical distance we are from others, and whether we are communicating in private or public settings. Voice volume can have significant cultural variations, as Hall notes: Personal status modulates voice tone, however, even in the Arab society. The Saudi Arabian shows respect to his superior — to a Sheikh, say — by lowering his voice and mumbling. Voice inflection is related to pitch. Upward inflection, or rising tone, is used con- ventionally when we ask questions: we are trying to cue a response.

    We may upwardly inflect or downwardly inflect when we are ready to stop talking and yield the floor to another person. This cue is often accompanied by eye contact. Nasality has negative connotations and tends to be inversely correlated with perceptions of persuasiveness. Careful or exaggerated articulation can indicate confidence, overconfidence, precision, formality, pretentiousness or over-punctiliousness. Poor articulation or lack of articulation can indicate shyness, lack of confidence or sloppiness. Accents, often in combination with vocabulary, can reveal where a person comes from geographically, and can also reveal socioeconomic status.

    Silence can sometimes be more important than sound or words. Bell , p. Smell or olfac- tory communication is a major mode of communication in the animal world, and it would be surprising if there were not at least Pheromones are sometimes expressed through some residual manifestations in human communication Hickson perspiration. Chemicals known as pheromones appear to be key signals in sexual that sweat is sexy?

    Sweaty is sexy? In some circumstances, yes, but we must remember that the cultural inventions of the past few thousand years include clothes and artificial indoor environments not to mention perfume and plumbing. In western societies, smell is virtually a taboo topic, because it is bound up with norms of cleanliness, health and attractiveness.

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    Because it is often difficult to get feedback on our own body smell, many of us are persuaded to assume the worst and take corrective action. It should be noted that not all cultures share such norms. Here are some literary samples: Fie, fie upon her! Charles Dickens, Great Expectations The features of our face are hardly more than gestures which have become permanent. I opted for one of the corner couches behind the desk. She swivelled and glared, angry at losing her barricade. She pounded her right thigh in frustration. Tish was still planted at her computer as I came in.

    She shot me a resentful glance but closed her file and folded her hands with the exaggerated patience of one who has little. Later in life, adults may show insecurity by biting a pencil, the arm of their glasses or their fingernails, which may perform the same function. A person entering an open area may perform the barrier cross gesture, which entails crossing the body in some way scratching, touching the body or other hand, or moving an object from one hand to the other.

    Self-touching, hair-stroking, playing with jewellery are other signs of insecurity.

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    Gestures are powerful tools of communication. Cultural variations on gestures are as great as in other aspects of nonverbal communica- tion. Where a Vietnamese man might intend to send signals of respect by gazing directly and folding his arms across his chest, a North American might read the attitude as indi- cating defiance rather than respect. A perfectly innocent gesture in one culture can be profoundly insulting in another.

    Alliance mistake #3: Communication

    Posture Posture relates to body movements and to height. Height, or tallness, still carries powerful messages of dominance. Aggression can be shown by a rigid body, with shoulders raised, both signals of readiness for physical combat. Defeat or depression are indicated by a slumped posture, representing both humility and retreat to the helplessness but recalled security of the foetus.

    You can create empathy with another person by mirroring, but you can also create disquiet and even anger if the person perceives that you are mimicking or attempting to manipulate them. Body movement Kinesics: the study of The study of nonlinguistic body movement, or kinesics, is concerned with the way humans nonlinguistic body movement move their bodies in relation to communication. This involves processes such as orienta- in relation to communication tion and synchronisation. Orientation, or the attitude, inclination or body angle we adopt in relation to others, can send powerful nonverbal messages.

    If we are interested in someone, we tend to face him or her squarely. The less interested we are, whether through hostility or indifference, the more we tend to orientate ourselves away from the person. When males and females are in confined situations — for example, when brushing past each other — males will tend to face towards females, while females will tend to face away Scheflen Synchronisation, similar to postural echo, mirroring or mimicking is an interactive process that helps define relationships between individuals: the greater the rapport between them, the greater their synchronisation.

    It plays a critical part in courting rituals, and is in fact a form of dance, wherein females may be testing males for compatibility. Synchro- nisation is an important part of animal mating rituals Remland Interpersonal conflicts can ensue when individuals are out of synchrony with one another — physically bumping into each other may sometimes be the nonverbal equivalent of verbal misunderstanding.

    Touching Haptics: the study of touch as The study of touch, or haptics, reveals much about human behaviour. Touch is critically allied to sensory integration and perhaps even psychological wellbeing: we probably need some degree of touching to survive and thrive, but for a variety of reasons we may not get enough of it Field The touching involved in the grooming rituals of our prehuman ancestors may have been instrumental in developing conversation in particular, gossip and language Dunbar Touch can be usefully classified into five types Johnson : 1.

    In workplaces, most touching is of type 1 or type 2. While there are strong taboos on various types of touching in different cultures, some people unconsciously or consciously feel deprived of types 2, 3, 4 and 5, and thus may seek out type 1 interactions at work Montagu Professionals should not feel uneasy about this, as they are almost certainly performing a vital social- therapeutic role with some customers.

    Perhaps the most common form of professional touching is the handshake. The western habit of shaking hands has been broadly adopted internationally, but any more demonstrative gesture — embracing or kissing, for example — needs to be approached with caution. Clothing and adornment Clothes and bodily adornment are used primarily to protect us from the elements and to send social and sexual messages. The ways we dress and adorn ourselves tell others whether we belong to a particular group, or which group or high-status individual we imitate out of admiration; they also carry messages about wealth, rank or class.

    In those organisations that require uniforms to be worn, the shared identity they provide can lead to a more positive emotional response in customers and clients. Uniforms often convey powerful status and sex-role messages, too; as it is females and lower-status males who are most often required to wear uniforms, such dress codes may signal enforced conformity in less powerful people. In this sense, well- paid executives wear uniforms just as surely as uniformed service staff in organisations or members of a street gang: they are all conforming to powerful norms, the violation of which will attract disapproval within the group.

    Dressing down, dressing up Some interesting debate on the question of uniform has emerged in the past few years. It has been traditional in the United States for schoolchildren not to wear uniforms, but there are now increasing demands for uniforms to be worn. Further debate rages about the acceptability of body adornment such as tattoos and body piercing Smith Indeed, all fashion can be seen as the ongoing creation and adaptation of uniforms for us all Barnard ; Crane It is expensive, cumbersome and absolutely worthless in any sort of inclement weather.

    What possible purpose does a tie serve, for example? It is completely random. It makes no sense. But that is how it is. You can accept it and take advantage of the effect suits have, or you can reject it. We tend to feel anxious if others invade this space; for example, by standing too close or by touching us. The four zones identified are: 1. Within this zone we will be comfortable only with people we like and know very well — for example, family members and lovers. Within this zone we will also be comfortable with people we know quite well — for example, friends and close colleagues.

    Within this zone we will also be comfortable with people we know only moderately well — for example, work colleagues in a meeting. Within this zone we will also be comfortable with people we know only slightly or not at all — for example, people in public places. Note, however, that this personal space bubble is relevant only to a middle-class North American of northern European heritage.

    Personal space varies between cultures and classes, and even between the sexes. People with lower space needs are more likely to use touch as a normal mode of communication; people with higher space needs are likely to practise social touching less.

    In extreme cases, violence may result from space violations in human encounters, but we are more likely to express anxiety and erect barriers in subtle, nonverbal ways — face rubbing, breaking eye contact, making the face expressionless, turning away, sur- rounding ourselves with objects, and so on. This happens when we are forced into close proximity in busy stores, in elevators, on public transport, at sporting events and in similar public situations.

    Road rage and parking rage may also be connected to territorial behaviour Remland Personal space can interact with orientation in interesting ways. Personal space needs may not be met when people are forced into close proximity, such as when business colleagues share a lift with a Environment superior. The physical environment in which we find ourselves can itself be a powerful mode of communication. The British Labour politician Aneurin Bevan observed that party con- ferences held in cheerful, bright-coloured rooms were significantly more successful than those held in dingy, depressing rooms.

    Building architecture, room size and shape, furni- ture, interior decoration and climate can all communicate strong messages to those who use or visit them. Time and cultural context Time and cultural context can also help us to understand nonverbal communication. The context model thus has implications for intercultural communication and intra- and inter-group communication. The chief differences are shown in table 8. One time only. Time is circular. Events proceed Time is linear. Events happen at their own pace.

    Multiple sequentially. As Hall explains: In some cultures, messages are explicit; the words carry most of the information. The German-Swiss are low-context, falling somewhere near the bottom of the scale. Next, the Germans, then the Scandinavians, as we move up. These cultures are all lower in context than the U. In other words, as you move from Northern to Southern Europe, you will find that people move towards more involvement with each other.

    The differences between them are thus not purely a matter of language, but of culture; in particular, they experience quite different senses of time, or chronicity. We will ignore the physiological constant of body structure and use the remaining categories to analyse five behavioural states: respect, liking, hostility, distress and deceit. The brief analysis given in table 8. Nevertheless, you may find it useful to analyse situations you have experienced and will find yourself in. Remember not to jump to conclusions with nonverbal communication: a gesture or posture or other manifestation in isolation may mean nothing.

    Groups or clusters of behaviours or tells may build up a more predictable picture. If, for example, you find yourself dealing with an individual exhibiting virtually every behaviour in one column of the table, then you can be reasonably sure that you would need no further words to identify and confirm the operation of that unique behavioural state. TABLE 8. Nonverbal communication and body lan- guage are not the same: body language is an element of nonverbal communication, but it has other aspects.

    We examined a visual model of nonverbal communication, looking at a number of not mutually exclusive categories, such as gesture, posture, body movement, touch, eye contact, paralinguistics, environment and time. We concluded that an under- standing of the dynamics of nonverbal communication might offer us useful insights into our own behaviour. What is a cluster, and why is it important for understanding nonverbal communication?

    What is congruence, and why is it important for understanding nonverbal communication? What is meant by a poker face? What is the relationship between synchronisation and mirroring? List and explain three types of nonverbal communication that might suggest a person is lying or being deceitful. List three ways in which a person might assert dominance over others. What is a monochron? A friend of yours is about to give a presentation but has not spent much time on researching the content.

    If you are working with a partner, return the favour. If this is difficult, perhaps you can get access to some home movie video footage of yourself.